Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Sarkozy walkout threats at G-20, reports say

updated 1 hour, 13 minutes ago

French President Nicolas Sarkozy seeks "stronger rules" for international commerce, a spokesman says.

PARIS, France (CNN) -- French President Nicolas Sarkozy wants a "real transformation" of international financial regulations out of this week's G-20 summit in London, a spokesman said Tuesday amid reports that Sarkozy will walk out of the gathering if he's not satisfied.

"President Sarkozy thinks that this summit is of the utmost importance for the whole world," Sarkozy spokesman Jean-David Levitte said Tuesday. "We cannot fail."

The G-20 -- financial leaders from 19 nations and the European Union -- begins meeting Thursday in London. The global monetary crisis is expected to be the central issue.

News outlets throughout Europe on Tuesday were reporting that Sarkozy would leave the summit or otherwise disrupt it if he doesn't feel members are seriously addressing business regulation, a crackdown on tax havens and other matters related to the world market. iReport.com: Do you live in a G-20 nation? Share your story

Top aides to the president would not directly confirm his plans, but suggested in several reports that Sarkozy is considering some sort of action.

"A basic rule with nuclear deterrence is that you do not say at what point you will use the weapon," Xavier Musca, Sarkozy's deputy chief of staff, told the London Times.

Levitte said Sarkozy wants to see "better rules, stronger rules" governing international commerce. That would include monitoring bonuses and salaries of financiers, overseeing accounting of major institutions and better monitoring of countries where corporations are able to establish home offices to avoid paying taxes in G-20 nations. Watch faces of the economic crisis in France »

"All this is very technical in nature, but if we act decisively it means a real transformation of the way capitalism is functioning," Levitte said. "And hopefully, we will make sure through these decisions that what happened will not happen again."

Simon Johnson, the former chief economist with the International Monetary Fund, dismissed the potential for a walkout by France, saying the threat likely was leaked as an act of showmanship as the summit approaches.

"It would be a disaster. It would be taken very badly by financial markets," said Johnson, now an economics professor at MIT. "I'm sure it's done for a domestic audience -- a little bit of chest-beating."

Johnson said that it's folly to expect many sweeping changes out of the summit. On his blog, The Baseline Scenario, he writes that an outline of the meeting's goals shows that "the G-20 punts on most of the big issues."

But he pointed to a handful of possibilities -- including the chance that the group will go along with a U.S. plan that would dramatically increase funding for the IMF. The IMF works to stabilize the economies in poor and developing countries by providing loans and through other means.

"It's better than nothing -- it's better than a kick in the teeth," he said. "That's the spirit with which you should approach these things.

"You don't usually get summits with drastic results."

On Tuesday, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown said G-20 leaders need to reshape the global economy to reflect world values.

"Instead of a globalization that threatens to become values-free and rules-free, we need a world of shared global rules founded on shared global values," Brown said.

U.S. President Barack Obama arrived in London for the summit on Tuesday, making his first visit to Europe since taking office. View the Obama itinerary of his trip to Europe »

There, he'll pitch on the world stage the economic-recovery package he recently pushed through Congress.

"I think it's likely that we will come out of the G-20 with very broad agreement on measures that have to be taken to address the global recession," White House spokesman Robert Gibbs told reporters on Air Force One.

Afterward Obama will visit France, Germany, the Czech Republic and Turkey to wrap up an eight-day trip.

'Jesuits have made Church's option for the poor in India

'Jesuits have made Church's option for the poor in India'

Published : March 23 2009

By Fr.Giuseppe Bellucci
Following is an interview with Fr. Adolfo Nicolás, the Superior General of the Society of Jesus, who visited India recently.

Father Nicolás went to Goa where he experienced a most moving celebration of Mass at the altar of St. Francis Xavier. In his homily, Father General said how deeply touched he was to "celebrate the Eucharist at the altar of Saint Francis Xavier, with his body behind me and today's Jesuits in front of me." The homily focused on the heart, "in Asia, people want to see, and if our preaching does not touch the heart and does not show itself in actions and in behaviors, words have no efficacy." After a short stop in Mumbai visiting the Jesuits, Father General returned to Rome. When he was back, I asked him two short questions. We present his responses and offer our wholehearted thanks for his availability.

What are your impressions about the Society after this first trip to India?
India continues to challenge any simplistic effort at easy classification. The variety of peoples, cultures, traditions, styles, etc. is so great that one cannot but admire the ease and naturalness with which people live side by side. It is the kind of naturalness that one would expect from very mature and experienced communities.

The Jesuits share in this multi-cultural life, with the advantage that the underlying social or caste distinctions are practically invisible, even if realism encourages us to think that they are not totally and definitely absent. Christian or human maturity is never the fruit of good will alone.

My visit has not covered the whole territory of India. But the little I have seen makes me think that the Society of Jesus in India has made its own the Church's option for the poor. I have been in touch with more Dalit and Adivasi people and communities in my visits than with any other groups. The Jesuits are quite committed to these communities with a very simple and deeply inserted presence; and working on creative and life-giving projects that contribute to education, access to energy and water, community building or human dignity and rights.

Another encouraging factor is the ease with which our men refer to deeper spiritual realities in the midst of life, apostolic work or social concerns. The Indian spiritual traditions have left in its people such a sense of the divine that it does not take much effort to detect it in conversations as well as in many other social expressions of their life.

Which are at the moment the most important problems and the challenges the Society has to face in India?

The challenges are many and complex. To name a few, I note:

- Leadership at a time of deep and drastic social and cultural change within India itself and in relationship to the rest of the world.

- The demographic change within our ranks, and the implications this has for the spiritual as well as academic training of our men, who come to us with different cultural tools and even differently trained brains and/or sensibilities.

- The development of a deeply Indian and Christian Philosophy and Theology, without weakening the ongoing communion and conversation with the rest of the Church.

- As the communication and cooperation among the different Regions and Provinces develops and grows, greater coordination will be needed to ensure that truly qualified and creative men are assigned to the training of Jesuits and the most influential apostolates of the Assistancy.

- The preparation of Jesuits in different areas of Spirituality, Theology and Other Sciences, who could become resource persons for the whole Society of Jesus and could be invited to other parts of the world to assist.


'Away From the Politics of Fear'



Janet Napolitano, 51, is President Obama's new Homeland Security Secretary. She spoke with SPIEGEL about immigration, the continued threat of terrorism and the changing tone in Washington.

SPIEGEL: Madame Secretary, in your first testimony to the US Congress as Homeland Security Secretary you never mentioned the word "terrorism." Does Islamist terrorism suddenly no longer pose a threat to your country?

Napolitano: Of course it does. I presume there is always a threat from terrorism. In my speech, although I did not use the word "terrorism," I referred to "man-caused" disasters. That is perhaps only a nuance, but it demonstrates that we want to move away from the politics of fear toward a policy of being prepared for all risks that can occur.

Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano.

SPIEGEL: This sounds quite different from what we heard from the Bush administration. How will the new anti-terror policy differ from the previous one?

Napolitano: Our policies will be guided by authoritative information. We also have assets at our disposal now that we did not have prior to 9/11. For example, we are much better able to keep track of travellers coming into the US than we were before. The third thing is to work with our international partners and allies to make sure that we are getting information and sharing information in an appropriate and real-time fashion.

SPIEGEL: This weekend you met in Berlin with six European Union interior ministers. What should Europeans expect of you and the Obama administration?

Find out how you can reprint this DER SPIEGEL article in your publication. Napolitano: Well, vis-à-vis working with me, what they can look forward to is a spirit of cooperation and coordination. Our approach will be not so much focused on protocol but on what steps each of us needs to accomplish to make our countries more secure.

SPIEGEL: What would you like to hear from your German counterpart, Interior Minister Wolfgang Schäuble?

Napolitano: The Bundestag (eds note: German parliament) soon has before it a vote to increase information-sharing, on criminal information, with us. This exchange is vital.

SPIEGEL: You would like the German authorities to share personal data of terrorism suspects, such as fingerprinting and DNA?

Napolitano: That is exactly right. We will also want to share some experiences with counter-radicalization, how the radicalization of young Muslims in our countries can be prevented.

SPIEGEL: Europe has a problem with just such people, young Muslims who grew up in the West and are still susceptible to radical messages. The terrorists responsible for the July 2005 attacks in London are an example.

Napolitano: In some ways, the problem in Europe is greater than in the United States. But the questions are the same. How do you identify a youth who is susceptible to becoming radicalized? How do you work with that youth, his family and community to give them alternatives to radicalization?

SPIEGEL: Would you characterize such social measures as a task of your agency?

Napolitano: Yes. In fact, we have group within my agency, the civil liberties group, and they have a focus right now on that issue.

SPIEGEL: Because the US fears that homegrown European terrorists with European passports could enter the country without a visa, for some weeks all travellers have had to via the internet at least 72 hours before departure. Is that not going too far?

Napolitano: Thousands have registered with the ESTA program, and the rate of acceptance is around 98 percent. This new technology enables us to more thoroughly check who wants to visit our country.

SPIEGEL: Should European visitors be prepared to submit even more personal data in the future?

Napolitano: Right now, our focus is on ESTA, as it is.

SPIEGEL: As one of his first official acts in office, President Obama took steps toward closing the prison at Guantanamo Bay. The German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier signaled that Germany would be prepared to accept some detainees. In your view, how many should Germany take?

Napolitano: Right now, we are participating in a group that is reviewing detainees' files case by case. Once that review is completed, the experts will make recommendations to me and ultimately to the president on what should be done with the detainees. It is of course a very great help if other countries have the willingness to take some of the detainees.

Sign up for Spiegel Online's daily newsletter and get the best of Der Spiegel's and Spiegel Online's international coverage in your In- Box everyday.

SPIEGEL: As governor of Arizona, you counted on new surveillance technologies to secure the border with Mexico. What sort of technology could you use in the fight against terrorism?

Napolitano: The violence perpetrated by drug cartels along the Mexican border has truly reached a different quality. This is partly fueled by guns that are purchased in the US and then transported south across the border. We scan license plates to help us determine which vehicles we must stop and search.

SPIEGEL: Is the drug war in Mexico truly a danger for the national security of the United States?

Napolitano: What is happening in Mexico now is a huge battle for the control of large geographic parts of the country between the federal government and these cartels. Yes, what happens in Mexico has huge impacts for every American.

SPIEGEL: When you were Arizona's governor, illegal immigration was an important issue for you. Your comment on the idea of a border fence was, "Show me a 50-foot fence, and I'll show you a 51-foot ladder." Europe hasn't found an answer to illegal immigration. What can Americans and Europeans learn from each other?

Napolitano: That you have to be pragmatic. You have to avoid over-simplification from the far right and from the far left. Ultimately, you need to deal with the underlying immigration law and a reasonable immigration policy. At some point, when the time is appropriate, our president and congress will re-engage on the underlying immigration law. Right now, my task is to make smart enforcement decisions on the law that we have.

Interview conducted by Cordula Meyer


Medvedev Talks Up Super Currency

Tuesday, March 31, 2009 23:08 Moscow Time.

The Moscow Times » Issue 4116 » Frontpage Top

Herbert Knosowski / AP
Medvedev and Merkel meeting German business leaders Tuesday in Berlin.

Medvedev Talks Up Super Currency
01 April 2009
By Ira Iosebashvili / The Moscow Times

President Dmitry Medvedev called for a new world economic order, including the introduction of a new "super currency," on Tuesday as he prepared for a G20 summit in London, where Russia has been jockeying for a more prominent role.

Speaking at a summit of CIS finance ministers in Moscow and later at a meeting with German Chancellor Angela Merkel in Berlin, Medvedev reiterated the key points in Moscow's proposed revision of the world's financial system, including the creation of a new global currency to supplant the U.S. dollar.

"Many of our partners maintain the point of view that everything is fine in this area, that all that is needed is a slight strengthening of major worldwide currencies, including the dollar," he said in Moscow, Interfax reported. "We hold another point of view."

He called for the creation of a "new international currency system" and said the idea of the super currency that Russia had suggested was finding an audience among other countries.

"Many are now discussing a so-called super currency, a supranational currency," Medvedev said.

He repeated the proposal once again in Berlin, saying the global economy "cannot develop in the next 10 years if we do not create a new infrastructure, including new [currency] systems," Interfax reported.

Merkel agreed that a new world economic order was needed. "It is clear that decisions on the new financial architecture must be made," she said at a joint news conference with Medvedev late Tuesday, where they also discussed NATO and a gas dispute with Ukraine.

The Kremlin has persistently criticized the dollar's status as the dominant global reserve currency and has lowered its own dollar holdings in the last few years.

In a document released two weeks ago that contained suggestions for global economic reform that the Kremlin said it would pitch at the G20 summit, it called for the creation of a new reserve currency or using Special Drawing Rights, or SDRs, as a "superreserve currency accepted by the whole of the international community."

Although most political leaders, including U.S. President Barack Obama, dismissed the idea, it sparked international debate and found a powerful backer in China, which last week echoed the call for a global currency and less reliance on the dollar.

Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin said Tuesday that the Chinese yuan could become a global reserve currency in 15 years. (Story, page 7.)

Medvedev said at the CIS meeting that the notion of a superreserve currency probably would be discussed during the G20 summit but "could become relevant in the very near future."

Russia -- with nearly $400 billion in reserves, no toxic U.S. assets in its banking system and very little state debt -- is looking to elbow its way into a prominent role on the world stage through the G20 talks on Thursday.

In recent weeks, Moscow has suggested a reshuffle of the voting power balance in the IMF to give Russia greater representation, joined Britain and France in rejecting U.S. calls to pour more money into the global economy through another wave of stimulus and backed more stringent financial regulation to avoid future financial crises.

It has sought to be a standard bearer for other emerging economies, releasing a series of joint statements with the other BRIC countries -- Brazil, India and China.

The Kremlin's ambitions were dealt a humiliating blow, however, when The Financial Times published a leaked government document from G20 summit host Britain that put Russia on a low priority "B list" with countries like Mexico, Turkey and Indonesia rather than on the higher priority "A list" of Japan, Germany and the United States.

British officials did not deny the existence of the document but sought to play down its importance.

"This list in no way represents a hierarchy of our political relations with those states," a Foreign Office spokeswoman told Reuters.

In Berlin, Medvedev said Russia and Germany shared similar viewpoints on how to combat the global crisis and suggested that the two countries might offer similar proposals to the G20.

"We definitely don't have any major differences in our positions," he said.

"I won't say who we do have differences with, in order to sustain the intrigue," he said. "Let the sherpas do their work, and maybe they will come to some kind of compromise."

Turning to the gas dispute with Ukraine, Medvedev warned Kiev that it would lose access to Russian loans until the issue of gas transportation was resolved. "Our Ukrainian colleagues ask us to give money. How can we give money if we cannot agree on such a crucial issue?" he said. "You cannot divide a product that does not belong to you."

The European Union signed a cooperation agreement with Ukraine on modernizing its gas transit system last week, but the Russian government was angry that it was excluded from the talks.

Medvedev said Moscow was willing to negotiate a gas transit deal that involved Russia and said proposals would be sent soon to Ukraine and the EU.

On the eve of the G20 summit, Medvedev and Obama will meet Wednesday in London for their first talks, which are expected to include NATO expansion, U.S. plans for a missile defense shield in Europe and a new arms reduction treaty.

In Berlin, Medvedev said Russia would soon resume a "full-scale dialogue" with NATO. "At one point, our relations sagged but, thankfully, reason prevailed," he said.

Source: http://www.themoscowtimes.com/article/600/42/375819.htm

Global clergy seminar for ministers of all faiths

Continuing education opportunity set for April 21

31 Mar 2009, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States ANN Staff

Former United States Senate Chaplain Lloyd John Ogilvie at last year's Ministerial seminar in Walla Walla, Washington. This year's speakers include Fred Craddock, Michael Quicke, Israel Bamidele Olaore and Chris Oberg. [photo: Mark Kellner]

Clergy around the world will have the opportunity for continuing education and panel discussions during the Seventh-day Adventist Ministry Professional Growth Seminar April 21.

The global continuing education program will be available on the Hope Church Channel television network in North America, on the Hope Channel internationally and on the Web at MinisterialAssociation.com.

"Participants will get from-the-trenches experiences that will sharpen and inform their ministry whether they be a pastor, chaplain, lay preacher, administrator, or seminarian," says Pastor Anthony Kent, event coordinator and associate ministerial secretary for the Adventist Church. "This event brings together experts who have preached around the world and taught thousands of others."

This year's theme, "Beyond Pulpits and Pews," will focus on taking Christianity beyond the walls of church, organizers say.

Scheduled speakers include Fred Craddock, selected by Newsweek magazine as on of the 12 most effective preachers in the English-speaking world; Michael Quicke, professor of preaching at Northern Seminary in Illinois; Israel Bamidele Olaore, senior university pastor and head of the Division of Spiritual Life at Babcock University, Nigeria; Chris Oberg, senior pastor of La Sierra University Church in California.

"This is the first year to feature a speaker who is currently ministering in Africa," Kent says. "We are particularly pleased that the Ministry Professional Growth Seminar is becoming more international in its focus."

The program will broadcast from Southern Adventist University in Collegedale, Tennessee, United States.

Participants are eligible to earn 0.5 unit of continuing education. According to Kent, more than 10,000 clergy registered for last year's seminar.

The Ministry seminar is an initiative of the Ministerial Association of the Seventh-day Adventist world church, which also produces Ministry magazine, a professional journal received by more than 75,000 clergy of various faiths.

For seminar broadcast schedules and other information, see MinisterialAssociation.com or hopetv.org.

Filed in Headlines and tagged education, General Conference, ministry, united states


Copyright © 2009, Adventist News Network. Adventist News Network is a registered trademark of the General Conference Corporation of Seventh-day Adventists. Unauthorized use is strictly prohibited.

Source: http://news.adventist.org/2009/03/global-clergy-semina.html

Prepare To Meet Thy God

Amos 4

1Hear this word, ye kine of Bashan, that are in the mountain of Samaria, which oppress the poor, which crush the needy, which say to their masters, Bring, and let us drink.

2The Lord GOD hath sworn by his holiness, that, lo, the days shall come upon you, that he will take you away with hooks, and your posterity with fishhooks.

3And ye shall go out at the breaches, every cow at that which is before her; and ye shall cast them into the palace, saith the LORD.

4Come to Bethel, and transgress; at Gilgal multiply transgression; and bring your sacrifices every morning, and your tithes after three years:

5And offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving with leaven, and proclaim and publish the free offerings: for this liketh you, O ye children of Israel, saith the Lord GOD.

6And I also have given you cleanness of teeth in all your cities, and want of bread in all your places: yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the LORD.

7And also I have withholden the rain from you, when there were yet three months to the harvest: and I caused it to rain upon one city, and caused it not to rain upon another city: one piece was rained upon, and the piece whereupon it rained not withered.

8So two or three cities wandered unto one city, to drink water; but they were not satisfied: yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the LORD.

9I have smitten you with blasting and mildew: when your gardens and your vineyards and your fig trees and your olive trees increased, the palmerworm devoured them: yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the LORD.

10I have sent among you the pestilence after the manner of Egypt: your young men have I slain with the sword, and have taken away your horses; and I have made the stink of your camps to come up unto your nostrils: yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the LORD.

11I have overthrown some of you, as God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah, and ye were as a firebrand plucked out of the burning: yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the LORD.

12Therefore thus will I do unto thee, O Israel: and because I will do this unto thee, prepare to meet thy God, O Israel.

13For, lo, he that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, and declareth unto man what is his thought, that maketh the morning darkness, and treadeth upon the high places of the earth, The LORD, The God of hosts, is his name.

Monday, March 30, 2009

How shall we escape?

How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him;----------Hebrews 2:3

Sunday, March 29, 2009

Global intelligence

March 28, 2009

Global intelligence

The meeting of the G20 leaders and the demonstrations against them provide an opportunity to restate the arguments for globalisation and capitalism

Dress down so that you are not mistaken for a financial worker. Carry identification so that you are not mistaken for a violent protester. Best still, avoid the entire area of the City of London while the G20 leaders are in town.

The Metropolitan Police are preparing care- fully for demonstrations against capitalism and the financial crisis that they fear may turn ugly. Such preparations are unfortunately necessary. But more important still is that world leaders should be prepared to respond robustly to the arguments that the demonstrators are advancing.

It is easy to be distracted by the menu of colourful exhibitionism and threatening language being served up by the putative protesters. Professor Chris Knight, of the University of East London (a specialist in the revolutionary implications of menstruation rites), has told the BBC that he is planning the public hanging of effigies of bankers (while hinting that real hangings could come next). There will be the usual attempt to make an assault on the US imperialist Starbucks and McDonald's. And all will make as much sense as marching down the North Circular towards Neasden shouting “Down with the Swedish model of social democracy” before putting a brick through the window of Ikea.

Yet what is far more disappointing is the thinness of the case that the protesters are putting. It is not, after all, that protest is unreasonable. Banking regulation has been miserable, bankers' behaviour and misjudgment even more so. Given the failings of individuals and governments that preceded the current economic crisis, demonstrations and anger are an understandable reaction. But one would hope that such protests would be aimed at the right targets. And they are not.

Since the 1999 demonstration in Seattle outside a meeting of the World Trade Organisation, meetings of world leaders have attracted a loose coalition of agitators with an equally loose collection of grievances. But one theme recurs. The demonstrations attack the idea of world trade among capitalist nations. And they do so in the name of the poor and dispossessed.

To this attack, an unflinching response is required. Global free trade is not a tool of oppression. It is the route out of oppression. The rise of globalisation - a word that the critics attempt to demonise - is one of the most hopeful developments in the history of mankind.

Globalisation has helped to alleviate the poverty of hundreds of millions of people; it has allowed an unprecedented choice of goods for consumers at lower prices; it has opened up closed regimes and allowed a little light and a little liberty to shine even in places where governments have been determined to keep the blinds shut.

Global free trade allows the sharing of knowledge across the world, leading to the creation of innovative products. The protesters argue that economic growth is the enemy of the planet - that it endangers the environment. Yet from global trade comes the chance to find technological solutions to the problem of climate change. The protectionism advocated by one part of the demonstrating coalition threatens the environmental goals held dear by another part.

The German politician Joschka Fischer - himself once a left-wing street protester - has observed that if the current economic crisis had happened even just 50 years ago it might have caused much more than some carnival clowning and mindless vandalism. It might have produced war.

Why has it not? Because globlisation has made the world richer, more stable and far more aware of the extent to which we depend upon each other. A gathering of international leaders provides an opportunity to defend the very concept of international exchange against those who would seek to overturn it.

Saturday, March 28, 2009

U.S. Dollar in the Crosshairs Ahead of G-20 Summit

Wednesday, March 25, 2009
By Patrick Goodenough, International Editor

A bank employee prepares banknotes in southwest China's Sichuan province on March 21, 2009. China is calling for a new global currency to replace the dominant dollar. (AP Photo)

(CNSNews.com) – In the run-up to next week’s G-20 summit in London, developing countries led by China and Russia are stepping up calls for the U.S. dollar to be pushed aside as the main global reserve currency.

China’s central bank governor, Zhou Xiaochuan, suggested this week that reforms to the international monetary system include the long-term goal of an international reserve currency not connected to an individual nation. China is the biggest holder of U.S. dollar assets and is concerned about the currency’s volatility.

A few days earlier, the Russian government put forward among its G-20 summit priorities a proposal for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to explore the possibility of creating a “super reserve currency accepted by the whole of the international community.” Russia said the proposal had broad support among other emerging economic powers, including Brazil, India and South Korea.

The Kremlin said its proposal could be pursued either through the creation of a new global reserve currency or through the use of the IMF’s existing Special Drawing Rights (SDR), a reserve asset set up in the 1960s and used only by governments and some international institutions. The SDR is not itself a currency; its value is based on a basket of four currencies – the dollar, euro, pound sterling and yen.

In his recommendations, which were posted in the form of an essay on the bank’s Web site, Zhou also cited the SDR, saying it had the features and potential to act as a super-sovereign reserve currency. But, he added, “the basket of currencies forming the basis for SDR valuation should be expanded to include currencies of all major economies.”

China has long been pushing for changes to the global financial system, to give a bigger say to China and other leading developing economies at the world’s financial institutions – a line it is expected to hold at the London summit.

According to Xinhua, China’s foreign exchange reserves hit a record 1.95 trillion U.S. dollars at the end of 2008, the largest in the world. As of January, it held U.S. Treasury bonds worth some $740 billion.

Earlier this month, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao voiced concern that Washington’s economic stimulus efforts could undercut the currency’s value.

Zhou’s proposal was quickly rejected by President Obama at Tuesday’s prime-time press conference, and by Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner and Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke on Capitol Hill earlier in the day.

“I don’t believe that there’s a need for global currency,” Obama said, while Geithner and Bernanke both replied in the affirmative when asked during a congressional hearing whether they would “categorically renounce the United States moving away from the dollar and going to a global currency.”

The global economic crisis has prompted other calls around the world to consider alternatives to a dollar-based system.

A Japanese think tank with government links this month proposed the establishment of a common Asian currency, on a par with the dollar and euro.

At a summit of the Economic Cooperation Organization two weeks ago, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, declaring the capitalist system to be “on the verge of collapse,” suggested the adoption of a common currency for trade among the 10 members of the Eurasian group, which include Turkey, Pakistan and Central Asian republics.

It was not the first time Ahmadinejad had taken a swipe at the U.S. currency. He and his Venezuelan ally, President Hugo Chavez, have pressed within the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) for oil to be priced against a currency – or a basket of currencies – other than the dollar.

Their proposal has come up against opposition within OPEC, led by Saudi Arabia.

Some Gulf oil states, meanwhile, are grappling with calls to stop pegging their own currencies to the greenback. Kuwait in 2007 became the first to do so.

Leading member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council have long planned a common currency for the oil-exporting region, although officials this week pushed back a 2010 deadline for the launch.
Source: http://cnsnews.com/public/content/article.aspx?RsrcID=45591

Religious Terrorism in Amerrica



Where are the Jesuit agenda for America and the world heading? For over 200 years, the goal has been the complete destruction of the United States Constitution. This would mean the utter demise and annihilation of the precious freedoms guaranteed by that document. The right of free speech, free press, freedom of religion or the right to worship God according to the dictates of ones own conscience, the right to bear arms, the right to a fair trail, and the right to personal privacy would all be eliminated. For the past several years, we have seen this war on the Constitution and freedom taking place in earnest.

In the religious arena, the goal of the Jesuits is to wipe out any trace of Protestantism and other religions, and to restore world-wide domination by the pope. Next, we will determine if the Jesuits will be successful in their sinister purposes.

The only reliable source we can turn to for information on future events is prophecy from God. The Bible has predicted one event after another down through history, and the events have occurred exactly as the Bible said they would. With the same unerring accuracy the Bible predicts future events, and it shows the results that will occur as a result of the Jesuits’ conspiracy to rule the world.

The chapter in the Bible that reveals the results of the Jesuits’ treachery is Revelation 13. There are two beasts mentioned in this chapter; the first one rises out of the sea in verse one and the second rises out of the earth in verse eleven. Notice the reading of these verses:

And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea.... — Revelation 13:1

And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth.... — Revelation 13:11

In order to understand these verses, we must determine what a beast represents in Bible prophecy, and what the sea and the earth represent. Watch how the Bible interprets itself.

The book of Daniel shows that a beast represents a kingdom, or as we would say today, a nation or country.

These great beasts, which are four, are four kings, which shall arise out of the earth.... Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse [different] from all kingdoms.... — Daniel 7:17,23

Thus, we see that Revelation 13 discusses two powers that came to prominence in the world. These two powers have their beginnings in different areas of the world, one rises out of the sea and the other rises out of the earth.

Next, we discover what water represents in Bible prophecy.

And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues. — Revelation 17:15

We see here that the first power in Revelation 13 had its beginning in a heavily populated area of the world amid existing nations. This suggests that the first power came up in the populated area of Europe. The second world power of Revelation 13:11 rises out of the earth, which means it arose in an area of the world where few inhabitants existed. This suggests the rise of the second power occurred in the Western Hemisphere; where the population density was very light.

Here is more information about the first beast.

...having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority. — Revelation 13:1,2

There is also more information about the second beast.

And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon. — Revelation 13:11.

Let us look at the meanings of the words blasphemy, dragon, and lamb in these verses. The first power commits blasphemy, and has been given his existence and authority from the dragon.

Mark explains one of the meanings of blasphemy.

When Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee. But there were certain of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts, Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? Who can forgive sins but God only? — Mark 2:5-7.

As the Son of God, Christ had the power to forgive sins, and He still has the power to forgive sins today. If a mere man claims that he can forgive sins, then that is blasphemy. The Jews, who refused to acknowledge Jesus as the Son of God, declared that He had committed blasphemy because they felt He was only a man. This first power in Revelation 13 commits blasphemy by claiming it can forgive people of their sins.

Here is the other meaning of blasphemy.

The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God. — John 10:33

Christ was God in human flesh, but the Jews did not acknowledge this. So when Christ claimed to be one with His Father, the Jews declared that He had committed blasphemy. Thus, when a man claims to be God on earth, this is blasphemy, and the first power in Revelation claims to be God.

Can you think of a power, rising up in the area of Europe that claims it can forgive sins and claims to be God? The confessional box of the Catholic Church is known throughout the world as the place where people go to have their sins forgiven by a priest. The most heinous crimes and the most awful deeds have resulted from one individual bearing his or her innermost thoughts to another human being. The Bible says, “For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;” (1 Timothy 2:5.) A Catholic priest has no more ability to forgive sins than your pet dog!

Next, consider some of the statements the papacy has made about the pope being god on earth.

The Pope is of so great dignity and so exalted that he is not a mere man, but as it were God, and the Vicar of God. The Pope is of such lofty and supreme dignity that, properly speaking, he has not been established in any rank of dignity, but rather has been placed upon the very summit of all ranks of dignities.... He is likewise the divine monarch and supreme emperor and king of kings. Hence the Pope is crowned with a triple crown, as King of Heaven and of Earth and of the Lower Regions. — Lucius Ferraris, Prompta Bibliotheca, volume 6, pp. 438, 442.
For thou art the shepherd, thou art the physician, thou art the husbandman; finally, thou art another God on earth. — Christopher Marcellus’s Oration in the Fifth Lateran Council, 4th session. J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum...Collectio, volume 32, col. 761, translated.

The pope is the supreme judge of the law of the land.... He is the vicegerent of Christ, who is not only a Priest forever, but also King of kings and Lord of lords. — La Civilta Cattolica, March 18, 1871, quoted in Leonard Woolsey Bacon, An Inside View of the Vatican Council, American Tract Society, p. 229.

Let us consider some of the names applied to Christ in the Scriptures and see if they could possibly apply to the pope: Almighty God, Creator, Savior, Christ, Lord, Most Holy, King of kings, and Reverend. What could be more blasphemous than for a man to claim any of these titles? “And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God. . . .” (Revelation 13:6).

The above quotes are utter blasphemy. The Roman Catholic power is the first beast of Revelation 13. Revelation 13:2 tells us that “The dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.” Who is the dragon that gives the papacy her power and authority?

The Bible tells us that the dragon is Satan, the devil.

And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him. — Revelation 12:9

The devil himself gave the papacy its power, its throne, and great authority. The devil runs the papacy. The devil is the one that leads her to destroy liberty in the earth. The devil is the one that seeks to gain homage from earth’s teeming multitudes by having them bow before the pontiff of Rome. The kind of brutal government the papacy ran through the Dark Ages is the kind the devil and the papacy promotes in the earth today. A satanic government has these characteristics:

1. It is controlled by a few; it is dictatorial.

2. It gives no freedom to its people.

3. It joins the church and the government together.

4. It persecutes anyone who does not comply.

That the papacy is the first power of Revelation 13 is beyond question. However, who is the second power of Revelation 13? We know that it rises in the Western Hemisphere and “he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon” (Verse 11). This verse indicates that the government started out lamb-like, being freedom-loving and just, but it ends up resembling a papal style or satanic government.

The Bible tells us that Christ is the Lamb.

The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. — John 1:29.

And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God. — John 1:36.

Christ is the lamb of Bible prophecy. The second power of Revelation 13, that rises in the Western Hemisphere, starts out with a Christ-like government, but ends up acting like the dragon (Satan). It starts out the opposite of the papacy and ends up just like her. Since a Christ-like government is opposite of a Satanic government, then the second power would have these characteristics at its beginning:

1. It is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.

2. It guarantees certain inalienable rights and freedoms, like freedom of speech, freedom of religion, etc.

3. It keeps the church and the government separate.

4. It defends its people from political and especially religious tyranny.

The second power of Revelation 13 that has these characteristics could be none other than the United States of America. She alone rose up in the Western Hemisphere and began with a lamb-like government. As we have clearly seen throughout this book, the Jesuits would be used to destroy this lamb-like government and make it papal — devilish. Revelation 13 foretold 2000 years ago that the Jesuits would be successful, for verse 11 said that America would begin with a lamb-like government, but would one day “speak as a dragon.” Jesuit infiltration in all levels and departments of the United States government is why this country becomes a tyrannical, persecuting power. America is speaking and behaving more and more like Satan every day.

Revelation 13 reveals the rise of the papacy and the United States. It portrays the characteristics of the American government in the beginning and foretells the ultimate takeover by the Jesuits. It also shows us the dictatorial power the papacy had before the great Protestant Reformation.

And they worshiped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshiped the beast, saying Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him? — Revelation 13:4

During the Dark Ages, the world was worshiping at the feet of the Roman pontiff. With the rise of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation, the Bible was given to the people in their own language as the only rule of faith and practice. The Bible only was the cry of the Reformers. Over time, many thousands of people came to accept teachings found only in the Bible.

It also discloses a time when worship of the pope would once again be required of all the world on pain of death, and the United States would be the power that pushes the world to submit to the papacy.

And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed. — Revelation 13:12,15

How will the world worship the papacy? What mark reveals papal authority in the earth? We need to find how the Scriptures define worship. How we understand and respond to this will determine our destiny as the following verse shows.

And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: — Revelation 14:9,10.

This is the most severe warning from God in the entire Bible. The following verses will show us the distinction between the true worship of God and false worship.

Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men…. And he said unto them, Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition. — Mark 7:7-9.

The Jews were given the 10 commandments in Exodus 20:2-17. Over the centuries, the Jews had corrupted the commandments with many traditions that confused the authority of the Ten Commandments. This Christ so unsparingly condemned. He declared that when the Ten Commandments are set aside and the traditions of men are set up, then that is vain worship. True worship would involve honoring all ten of the commandments.

False worship is honoring the traditions of men.

True worship is honoring the commandments of God.

In Revelation 13 and 14, we are confronted with a papal tradition that is being exalted above one of God’s commandments, and this papal tradition is the mark of papal authority in the world. Do you know of a papal tradition, that is directly contrary to one of the Ten Commandments that the papacy herself will tell us is her mark of authority in the earth? This tradition is so vile in Heaven’s eyes that if one continues to obey the papacy’s commandment while knowing full well that it is contrary to the explicit commands of God, “the same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God.” (Revelation 14:10).

We will now look at several statements from Catholic literature that will show conclusively the papacy’s mark of authority is in the earth.

Prove to me from the Bible alone that I am bound to keep Sunday holy. There is no such law in the Bible. It is a law of the holy Catholic Church alone. The Bible says ‘Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.’ The Catholic Church says, No. By my divine power I abolish the Sabbath day and command you to keep holy the first day of the week. And lo! The entire civilized world bows down in reverent obedience to the command of the Holy Catholic Church. — Thomas Enright, CSSR, President, Redemptorist College (Roman Catholic), Kansas City, MO., February 18, 1884.

The observance of Sunday by the Protestants is an homage they pay, in spite of themselves, to the authority of the [Catholic] church. — Monsignor Louis Segur, Plain Talk About the Protestantism of Today (1868), p. 213.

If Protestants would follow the Bible, they should worship God on the Sabbath Day [Saturday]. In keeping the Sunday they are following a law of the Catholic church. — Albert Smith, Chancellor of the Archdiocese of Baltimore, replying for the Cardinal in a letter of February 10, 1920.

The State, in passing laws for the due sanctification of Sunday, is unwittingly acknowledging the authority of the Catholic Church, and carrying out more or less faithfully its prescriptions.

The Sunday, as a day of the week set apart for the obligatory public worship of Almighty God, to be sanctified by a suspension of all servile labor, trade, and worldly avocations and by exercises of devotion, is purely a creation of the Catholic Church. — The American Catholic Quarterly Review, January, 1883, pp. 152, 139.

Protestants... accept Sunday rather than Saturday as the day for public worship after the Catholic Church made the change.... But the Protestant mind does not seem to realize that...in observing the Sunday, they are accepting the authority of the spokesman for the church, the Pope. — Our Sunday Visitor, February 5, 1950.

It is well to remind the Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and all other Christians, that the Bible does not support them anywhere in their observance of Sunday. Sunday is an institution of the Roman Catholic Church, and those who observe the day observe a commandment of the Catholic Church. — Priest Brady, in an address, reported in the Elizabeth, N.J. “News,” March 18, 1903.

The mark of Catholic Church authority in the world is Sunday observance. This is a tradition that has no place in the Bible. It originated in Rome, and when we honor the Sunday tradition, we are paying homage to the papacy. Sunday goes directly contrary to the plain teaching of the fourth commandment, which declares

Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it. — Exodus 20:8-11.

The papacy tells us exactly what its MARK is.

Of course the Catholic Church claims that the change [from Saturday to Sunday] was her act. And the act is a MARK of her ecclesiastical power and authority in religious matters. — C. F. Thomas, Chancellor of Cardinal Gibbons.

Sunday is our MARK of authority.... The church is above the Bible, and this transference of Sabbath observance is proof of that fact. — Catholic Record, September 1, 1923 (Ontario).

By their own words, they tell us that Sunday observance is the Mark of the Beast. Remember that Satan, the devil, gave the Catholic Church its power and great authority in the world. Since the papacy is doing the bidding of the devil, it is the devil who wants the world to break God’s Sabbath commandment and worship the papacy on Sunday.

Revelation 13 and current history tell us that somewhere down the road, the Jesuits will foment another terrorist attack or create some other crisis, and in its aftermath they will be able to institute their planned desire — a National Sunday Law. They have used Waco, Oklahoma City, and the World Trade Center disasters to erode away precious constitutional liberties in America. These three events were all well planned in order to condition Americans to surrender their blood-bought freedoms. This is a developing trend that will not cease until Sunday Laws are passed in this land, and then around the world. These laws will result in bloody persecution just like in the Dark Ages.

There will one day very soon be only two groups in the entire world. On one side will be the great bulk of humanity aligned with the Jesuits of the Vatican in direct rebellion against the God of the universe. The other group will be a much smaller group consisting of those who love God and keep all of His commandments. The great dividing line will be over the Ten Commandments, specifically the fourth commandment, the Sabbath commandment.

Which side will you be on? Will you embrace the papacy’s ultimate goal, Sunday observance, or will you embrace the great sign of God’s power to create and to redeem — the seventh-day Sabbath? Sunday observance, homage to the pope and to the Jesuits of the Vatican, will lead America and then the world to devastation and ruin; whereas Sabbath observance, which represents total submission to God’s commands will lead to everlasting life with the Lord Jesus Christ.

If any man worship the beast [the Catholic Church] and his image, and receive his mark [Sunday observance] in his forehead, or in his hand, The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: — Revelation 14:9, 10.

Source: http://www.pacinst.com/terrorists/chapter12/terror.html

This is from the book THE SECRET TERRORISTS by Bill Hughes.

Army Investigating How and Why Troops Were Sent Into Alabama Town After Murder Spree

U.S. Army soldiers from Ft. Rucker patrol the downtown area of Samson, Alabama after a shooting spree March 10, 2009. (Photo: Reuters/Mark Wallheiser. Used by permission.)

Army Investigating How and Why Troops Were Sent Into Alabama Town After Murder Spree

Wednesday, March 18, 2009
By Pete Winn, Senior Writer/Editor

(CNSNews.com) - The U.S. Army has launched an inquiry into how and why active duty troops from Fort Rucker, Ala., came to be placed on the streets of Samson, Ala., during last week's murder spree in that tiny South Alabama community. The use of the troops was a possible violation of federal law.

“On March 10, after a report of an apparent mass murder in Samson, Ala., 22 military police soldiers from Fort Rucker, Ala., along with the provost marshal, were sent to the city of Samson,” Harvey Perritt, spokesman for the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) at Fort Monroe, Va., told CNSNews.com on Monday.

“The purpose for sending the military police, the authority for doing so, and what duties they performed is the subject of an ongoing commander’s inquiry--directed by the commanding general of U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, Gen. Martin Dempsey.”

TRADOC is the headquarters command for Ft. Rucker.

“In addition to determining the facts, this inquiry will also determine whether law, regulation and policy were followed,” Perritt added. “Until those facts are determined, it would be inappropriate to speculate or comment further.”

Jim Stromenger, a dispatcher at the Samson Police Department, confirmed the MP’s presence in the town, telling CNSNews.com that the troops “came in to help with traffic control and to secure the crime scene”--and the department was glad for the help.

“We’ve been getting a lot of calls,” Stromenger said. “They weren’t here to police, let me make that clear. They were here to help with traffic and to control the crime scene--so people wouldn’t trample all over (it).”

Stromenger said the town needed help--calls had gone out to all police departments in the area.

“We only have a five-man police department,” he told CNSNews.com. “We had officers from all surrounding areas helping out. There were a lot of streets to be blocked off and there had to be someone physically there to block them off. That’s what these MPs were doing. I don’t think they were even armed. The troops helped keep nosy people away.”

But Stromenger said it wasn’t the Samson Police Department that called for the troops.

“I don’t know who called Fort Rucker. But someone did. They wouldn’t have been able to come if someone hadn’t,” he added.

Under Whose Authority?

The troops were apparently not deployed by the request of Alabama Gov. Bob Riley -- or by the request of President Obama, as required by law.

When contacted by CNSNews.com, the governor’s office could not confirm that the governor had requested help from the Army, and Gov. Riley's spokesman, Todd Stacy, expressed surprise when he was told that troops had been sent to the town.

No request from President Obama, meanwhile, was issued by the White House--or the Defense Department.

Wrongful use of federal troops inside U.S. borders is a violation of several federal laws, including one known as the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, Title 18, Section 1385 of the U.S. Code.

“Whoever, except in cases and under circumstances expressly authorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress, willfully uses any part of the Army or the Air Force as a posse comitatus or otherwise to execute the laws shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than two years, or both,” the law states.

David Rittgers, legal policy analyst at the Cato Institute, said there are other laws barring use of federal troops outside of federal property, as well.

“Title 18, Section 375 of the U.S. Code is a direct restriction on military personnel, and it basically precludes any member of the army in participating in a ‘search, seizure, arrest or other similar activity, unless participation is otherwise authorized by law,’ “ Rittgers told CNSNews.com.

“The security of a crime scene is something I think that would roll up in the category of a ‘search, seizure or other activity,’” Rittgers added.

In addition, there is the Insurrection Act of 1808, as amended in 2007, (Title 10, Section 331 of the U.S. Code) under which the president can authorize troops “to restore order and enforce the laws of the United States” in an insurrection.

“Whenever there is an insurrection in any State against its government, the President may, upon the request of its legislature or of its governor if the legislature cannot be convened, call into federal service such of the militia of the other States, in the number requested by that State, and use such of the armed forces, as he considers necessary to suppress the insurrection,” the law states.

In 2007, Congress expanded the list to include “natural disaster, epidemic, or other serious public health emergency, terrorist attack or incident, or other condition” as situations for which the president can authorize troops, provided that “domestic violence has occurred to such an extent that the constituted authorities of the state or possession are incapable of maintaining public order.”

Congress has been clear that the use of U.S. troops for civilian police purposes is forbidden.

“One of the statutes explicitly says that military brigs can’t even be used to detain domestic criminals,” Rittgers said. “It really is supposed to be a black and white line.”

The U.S. Department of Justice, meanwhile, would have prosecuting authority, if any violation is deemed to have occurred. The Justice Department did not comment for this story.

Ft. Rucker, located in Southern Alabama, is the home of Army Aviation.
Source: http://www.cnsnews.com/public/Content/Article.aspx?rsrcid=45206

U.S. Constitution: First Amendment (Sunday Closing Laws)

Sunday Closing Laws .--The history of Sunday Closing Laws goes back into United States colonial history and far back into English history. 144 Commonly, the laws require the observance of the Christian Sabbath as a day of rest, although in recent years they have tended to become honeycombed with exceptions. The Supreme Court rejected an Establishment Clause challenge to Sunday Closing Laws in McGowan v. Maryland. 145 The Court acknowledged that historically the laws had a religious motivation and were designed to effectuate concepts of Christian theology. However, ''[i]n light of the evolution of our Sunday Closing Laws through the centuries, and of their more or less recent emphasis upon secular considerations, it is not difficult to discern that as presently written and administered, most of them, at least, are of a secular rather than of a religious character, and that presently they bear no relationship to establishment of religion. . . .'' 146 ''[T]he fact that this [prescribed day of rest] is Sunday, a day of particular significance for the dominant Christian sects, does not bar the State from achieving its secular goals. To say that the States cannot prescribe Sunday as a day of rest for these purposes solely because centuries ago such laws had their genesis in religion would give a constitutional interpretation of hostility to the public welfare rather than one of mere separation of church and State.'' 147 The choice of Sunday as the day of rest, while originally religious, now reflected simple legislative inertia or recognition that Sunday was a traditional day for the choice. 148 Valid secular reasons existed for not simply requiring one day of rest and leaving to each individual to choose the day, reasons of ease of enforcement and of assuring a common day in the community for rest and leisure. 149 More recently, a state statute mandating that employers honor the Sabbath day of the employee's choice was held invalid as having the primary effect of promoting religion by weighing the employee's Sabbath choice over all other interests. 150

[Footnote 144] The history is recited at length in the opinion of the Court in McGowan v. Maryland, 366 U.S. 420, 431 -40 (1961), and in Justice Frankfurter's concurrence. Id. at 459, 470-551 and appendix.
[Footnote 145] 366 U.S. 420 (1961). Decision on the establishment question in this case also controlled the similar decision on that question in Two Guys from Harrison-Allentown v. McGinley, 366 U.S. 582 (1961), Braunfeld v. Brown, 366 U.S. 599 (1961), and Gallagher v. Crown Kosher Super Market, 366 U.S. 617 (1961). On free exercise in these cases, see infra, pp.1011-12.
[Footnote 146] McGowan v. Maryland, 366 U.S. 420, 444 (1961).
[Footnote 147] Id. at 445.
[Footnote 148] Id. at 449-52.
[Footnote 149] Id. Justice Frankfurter, with whom Justice Harlan concurred, arrived at the same conclusions by a route that did not require approval of Everson v. Board of Education, from which he had dissented.
[Footnote 150] Estate of Thornton v. Caldor, Inc., 472 U.S. 703 (1985).


Note: This is an excerpt of a long legal annotation..... Arsenio.

A Standard you can Trust

Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. Eph. 6:11.

At every revival of God's work, the prince of evil is aroused to more intense activity; he is now putting forth his utmost efforts for a final struggle against Christ and His followers. The last great delusion is soon to open before us. Antichrist is to perform his marvelous works in our sight. So closely will the counterfeit resemble the true, that it will be impossible to distinguish between them except by the Holy Scriptures. By their testimony.

None but those who have fortified the mind with the truths of the Bible will stand through the last great conflict. To every soul will come the searching test: Shall I obey God rather than men? The decisive hour is even now at hand. Are our feet planted on the rock of God's immutable word? Are we prepared to stand firm in defense of the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus? . . .

It is the first and highest duty of every rational being to learn from the Scriptures what is truth, and then to walk in the light, and encourage others to follow his example. We should day by day study the Bible diligently, weighing every thought, and comparing scripture with scripture. With divine help we are to form our opinions for ourselves as we are to answer for ourselves before God. . . .

Jesus promised His disciples: "The Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you." John 14:26. But the teachings of Christ must previously have been stored in the mind, in order for the Spirit of God to bring them to our remembrance in the time of peril. . . .

When the testing time shall come, those who have made God's word their rule of life will be revealed. . . . Let persecution be kindled, and the halfhearted and hypocritical will waver and yield the faith; but the true Christian will stand firm as a rock, his faith stronger, his hope brighter, than in days of prosperity.

Maranatha, E.G. White, p.94.

Warning to the Shepherds (Pastors)

Ezekiel 34

1And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,

2Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel, prophesy, and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD unto the shepherds; Woe be to the shepherds of Israel that do feed themselves! should not the shepherds feed the flocks?

3Ye eat the fat, and ye clothe you with the wool, ye kill them that are fed: but ye feed not the flock.

4The diseased have ye not strengthened, neither have ye healed that which was sick, neither have ye bound up that which was broken, neither have ye brought again that which was driven away, neither have ye sought that which was lost; but with force and with cruelty have ye ruled them.

5And they were scattered, because there is no shepherd: and they became meat to all the beasts of the field, when they were scattered.

6My sheep wandered through all the mountains, and upon every high hill: yea, my flock was scattered upon all the face of the earth, and none did search or seek after them.

7Therefore, ye shepherds, hear the word of the LORD;

8As I live, saith the Lord GOD, surely because my flock became a prey, and my flock became meat to every beast of the field, because there was no shepherd, neither did my shepherds search for my flock, but the shepherds fed themselves, and fed not my flock;

9Therefore, O ye shepherds, hear the word of the LORD;

10Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against the shepherds; and I will require my flock at their hand, and cause them to cease from feeding the flock; neither shall the shepherds feed themselves any more; for I will deliver my flock from their mouth, that they may not be meat for them.

11For thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I, even I, will both search my sheep, and seek them out.

12As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep that are scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day.

13And I will bring them out from the people, and gather them from the countries, and will bring them to their own land, and feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers, and in all the inhabited places of the country.

14I will feed them in a good pasture, and upon the high mountains of Israel shall their fold be: there shall they lie in a good fold, and in a fat pasture shall they feed upon the mountains of Israel.

15I will feed my flock, and I will cause them to lie down, saith the Lord GOD.

16I will seek that which was lost, and bring again that which was driven away, and will bind up that which was broken, and will strengthen that which was sick: but I will destroy the fat and the strong; I will feed them with judgment.

17And as for you, O my flock, thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I judge between cattle and cattle, between the rams and the he goats.

18Seemeth it a small thing unto you to have eaten up the good pasture, but ye must tread down with your feet the residue of your pastures? and to have drunk of the deep waters, but ye must foul the residue with your feet?

19And as for my flock, they eat that which ye have trodden with your feet; and they drink that which ye have fouled with your feet.

20Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD unto them; Behold, I, even I, will judge between the fat cattle and between the lean cattle.

21Because ye have thrust with side and with shoulder, and pushed all the diseased with your horns, till ye have scattered them abroad;

22Therefore will I save my flock, and they shall no more be a prey; and I will judge between cattle and cattle.

23And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd.

24And I the LORD will be their God, and my servant David a prince among them; I the LORD have spoken it.

25And I will make with them a covenant of peace, and will cause the evil beasts to cease out of the land: and they shall dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods.

26And I will make them and the places round about my hill a blessing; and I will cause the shower to come down in his season; there shall be showers of blessing.

27And the tree of the field shall yield her fruit, and the earth shall yield her increase, and they shall be safe in their land, and shall know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bands of their yoke, and delivered them out of the hand of those that served themselves of them.

28And they shall no more be a prey to the heathen, neither shall the beast of the land devour them; but they shall dwell safely, and none shall make them afraid.

29And I will raise up for them a plant of renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the heathen any more.

30Thus shall they know that I the LORD their God am with them, and that they, even the house of Israel, are my people, saith the Lord GOD.

31And ye my flock, the flock of my pasture, are men, and I am your God, saith the Lord GOD.

Friday, March 27, 2009

A Shelter in the time of storm

The Lord’s our Rock, in Him we hide,
A Shelter in the time of storm;
Secure whatever ill betide,
A Shelter in the time of storm.


Oh, Jesus is a Rock in a weary land,
A weary land, a weary land;
Oh, Jesus is a Rock in a weary land,
A Shelter in the time of storm.

A shade by day, defense by night,
A Shelter in the time of storm;
No fears alarm, no foes afright,
A Shelter in the time of storm.


The raging storms may round us beat,
A Shelter in the time of storm
We’ll never leave our safe retreat,
A Shelter in the time of storm.


O Rock divine, O Refuge dear,
A Shelter in the time of storm;
Be Thou our Helper ever near,
A Shelter in the time of storm.


Words: Ve­rnon J. Charles­worth, cir­ca 1880.

Music: Ira D. Sank­ey, cir­ca 1885

the seven last plagues

Chapter 17


Let us now consider more of the details of the last days. Since we have all broken the law of God, we are all guilty of sin and deserving of death. We are all, therefore, on probation in this life. One day soon, however, probation will close, and those who have not responded to the message of truth at that time will be forever lost to suffer their own penalty for sin, which, of course, is death. From the time probation closes, the righteous will remain righteous, and the wicked will remain wicked. There will be no one converted to the truth once probation closes. Revelation 22:11,12 tells us that after probation closes, “He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still. And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be.”

Christ is waiting for His 144,000 perfect people, symbolized in the parable of the wheat and the tares by the ripened wheat. The wicked at this time are also ripening — into perfect wickedness, so that the world will be completely polarized. When this polarization occurs, probation closes and the events of the final year of earth’s history are initiated.

What event marks the close of probation? None! The people of earth will not realize that probation has closed — until the first of the seven last plagues occurs. Shortly after probation closes, the seven last plagues begin on the earth. This is the time of trouble, described in Daniel 12:1, such as was not since there was a nation. “And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.”

When severe trouble comes, people who never give the Lord a thought when times are good turn to God for help, but during this time of overwhelming trouble they will be unable to find the Word of the Lord, as Amos 8:11,12 says. “Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord: And they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east, they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not find it.”

Let us now investigate the seven last plagues, which begin shortly after probation closes. Revelation 15:1-8 gives a prelude to the plagues.

Verse 1. And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvellous, seven angels having the seven last plagues; for in them is filled up the wrath of God.

2. And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and them that had gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark, and over the number of his name, stand on the sea of glass, having the harps of God.

3. And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints.

4. Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name? for thou only art holy: for all nations shall come and worship before thee; for thy judgments are made manifest.

5. And after that I looked, and, behold, the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened:

6. And the seven angels came out of the temple, having the seven plagues, clothed in pure and white linen, and having their breasts girded with golden girdles.

7. And one of the four beasts gave unto the seven angels seven golden vials full of the wrath of God, who liveth for ever and ever.

8. And the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from his power; and no man was able to enter into the temple, till the seven plagues of the seven angels were fulfilled.

Verses 1 through 4 describe the righteous praising God. The righteous make it plain that God is not to be held responsible for the calamity of the seven last plagues, for they emphasize in verse 3 that “just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints.” This shows that God is not directly responsible for the seven last plagues. He, of course, could prevent the plagues from happening, but He must allow the plagues to fall in order to finish this drama of earth.

Satan, you will remember, wants to be God. He has his own ideas as to how the universe should be run, and he has accused God of all kinds of injustice in an effort to discredit God. Up until probation closes, God overrules Satan’s operation, not permitting the full results of evil to become apparent. During the seven last plagues, however, God completely removes His influence and His Holy Spirit from the earth and allows Satan and the wicked complete freedom to do as they will. This is symbolized in Revelation 15:8 by the temple’s being filled with smoke so that no one could enter. God completely withdraws Himself during the seven last plagues and lets things happen as they will.

Satan wants to be God. Now he has his opportunity without any restriction from God at all. The results are total chaos. Satan cannot hold things together, and the seven last plagues are the result. Even he did not realize the mighty power of God to keep all nature under control. You will remember that Colossians 1:17 tells us that it is God who holds all things together. “And he is before all things, and by him all things consist (hold together).”

With the understanding that God does not cause the seven last plagues — He only permits them to happen — let us read the entire sixteenth chapter of Revelation, which describes these plagues. Revelation 16:1-21:

Verse 1. And I heard a great voice out of the temple saying to the seven angels, Go your ways, and pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth.

2. And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image.

3. And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it became as the blood of a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea.

4. And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters: and they became blood.

5. And I heard the angel of the waters say, Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus.

6. For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink; for they are worthy.

7. And I heard another out of the altar say, Even so, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments.

8. And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire.

9. And men were scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the name of God, which hath power over these plagues: and they repented not to give him glory.

10. And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for pain,

11. And blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores, and repented not of their deeds.

12. And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared.

13. And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet.

14. For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.

15. Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.

16. And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.

17. And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It is done.

18. And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great.

19. And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.

20. And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found.

21. And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

The first plague, described in verse 2, is ulcerous, cancerous sores all over the bodies of the wicked. The New International translation says “ugly and painful sores broke out on the people who had the mark of the beast and worshiped his image.” Notice how this verse emphasizes the fact that those who have the mark of the beast will be afflicted with these sores. God’s true people, the 144,000, do not, of course, receive the sores.

The second plague, described in verse three, is a sea of blood, which kills every living thing in the sea. The wicked are enraged at this time because of the sores and because of the bloody sea. They blame the righteous for these plagues, saying that if they could rid the earth of the Sabbath-keepers, these plagues would be abated. There is, therefore, a death decree, mentioned in Revelation 13:15, issued for the extermination of all those who will not fall into line and observe Sunday instead of God’s Sabbath day. This action on the part of the wicked is reminiscent of the time nearly two thousand years ago when the rulers proclaimed that one man, Christ, should perish rather than the whole nation.

The third plague is that all the fresh water is turned into blood. Imagine having the discomfort of the sores and having to drink blood to quench your thirst. This plague further enrages the wicked against the righteous.

The fourth plague, found in verse 8, is that the sun increases its energy output, and the temperature of the earth drastically increases, thus aggravating the pain and misery which the wicked suffer at this time when they are covered with boils and have no water to drink. This intense heat, of course, will cause a severe drought and famine, and the water which is blood will by this time undoubtedly emit an unbearable stench. Still the wicked blaspheme God and blame His people for their predicament.

The fifth plague is a darkening of the earth in rapid succession after the burning heat of the sun. The sun now decreases its energy output. Darkness, bitter cold, and misery follow. “And they gnawed their tongues for pain. And blasphemed the God of heaven. . . .”

The sixth plague is the drying up of the waters of the Euphrates River in preparation for the kings of the east. In order to understand this symbol we need to review the historical account of the drying up of the Euphrates River, which the Medo-Persian army used as a means to defeat the ancient city of Babylon. The river Euphrates flowed through the center of ancient Babylon. Before their attack on Babylon, the army of Medo-Persia diverted the river. They marched into the city over the empty river bottom, and Babylon was defeated. This sixth plague is a reference to the fall of ancient Babylon. The drying up of the waters symbolizes the preparation for the defeat of modern Babylon and the return of the Lord.

In ancient Babylon the people were having a drunken orgy, as described in Daniel chapter five, when the city fell to the Medes and Persians. The people of Babylon were unaware of what was happening. In fact, they were even so careless as to leave the gates across the river open, and the city fell quite easily to the invading army. Likewise modern Babylon, the vast collection of false churches and religions, is totally unaware of its impending doom. In its stupor, drunken on the wine of Babylon, it persecutes God’s true people mercilessly. The kings of the east mentioned in this verse represent Christ and those who accompany Him on His return to earth. Christ and all the holy angels will first appear as a small cloud in the east upon their arrival at earth.

Satan knows that his time is getting very short and that things are out of control. He must do something to try to turn the tide of his defeat. He sees the 144,000 whom he has not been able to swerve from their perfect allegiance to God. He must force these people to break God’s law, for his life depends on it. It is time for his most overpowering deception: his masquerading again as Christ. He first appeared as Christ to put his counterfeit power and authority behind the Sunday law before probation closed. In all his glory, he will again appear to the inhabitants of earth in his last-ditch effort to make the 144,000 believe that he is Christ and thereby cause them to sin. He must appear at this time in order to be a credible counterfeit, for this is the time the 144,000 are expecting the Lord to return. Because God’s true people know that Satan will masquerade as Christ, Satan’s appearance before probation closes satisfies their expectation that he will do this and tends to make them more susceptible to his overpowering deception in these final hours.

Have you any idea of the tremendous power these events will have to cause the 144,000 to believe that Satan is Christ? This is the reason for Revelation 16:15, “Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.” In this verse Jesus gives His righteous people a gentle warning against Satan’s overpowering deception when he masquerades as Christ. It is also a word of encouragement to God’s people. The deception will be almost overwhelming; but God’s people trust in Him and believe His Word, and by His grace they are able to remain steadfast.

Satan will also be the major instigator of the battle of the great day of God Almighty. “And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.” (Verses 13 and 14) The three frogs symbolize lying propaganda which comes from Satan, the papacy, and the great Protestant ecumenical alliance, which had caused the United States to pass the national Sunday law. All three of these proclaim with a loud voice the lying propaganda which goes forth to the nations of earth to prepare them for the battle of that great day of God Almighty, when the entire earth, with the exception of the 144,000, will be arrayed against the returning Lord.

Let us review some of the details of this “battle of the great day of God Almighty.” We saw in chapter 5 that this is NOT the battle of Armageddon. What is this propaganda that these three put out, and how does it prepare the wicked for Christ’s return? Let us review what we learned in chapter 5.

For some time now publications and the news media have been talking about a large asteroid hitting the earth and the catastrophic damage it will cause. Thousands of articles have been written and movies have been made on this subject. Asteroids are millions of rocks in orbit around the Sun generally between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. They range in size from small boulders to hundreds of miles in diameter. The largest asteroid is about 600 miles in diameter. The impact speed of an asteroid as it hits the earth could be more than 30 thousand miles per hour. If a large asteroid hit the earth it would cause catastrophic damage. The cover of the April, 1997 issue of Popular Science magazine has a dramatic, full-color picture of a large asteroid heading straight for the earth. The headlines say, “Asteroid Hit, Planet Earth Will Be Hit by an Asteroid or Comet.” The dinosaurs were destroyed during Noah’s flood, but scientists are claiming that a large asteroid that hit the earth was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Thus the devil is trying to convince people that the earth is in danger of being destroyed by an asteroid. Why do you suppose he is doing this? We saw earlier that when Christ returns the people will see a small cloud in the east. As Christ gets closer to the earth, the cloud will appear larger and larger. Satan will convince people that this cloud is an asteroid that is headed for the earth, and in order to save the earth we will have to fire nuclear missiles at it in an attempt to break it up into smaller fragments before it gets too close. This is the battle of the great day of God Almighty. Christ will be welcomed with a barrage of nuclear missiles.

Let us review what we learned about Armageddon in chapter 5. Armageddon is generally thought to be this great final battle on earth. It is also generally thought to be a conflict between armies on the earth, between east and west. Verse 16 says, “He gathered them together into a place called . . . Armageddon.” The word “Armageddon” is thought to mean Mount Meggido, but there was never a mountain called by this name. No geographical location was ever known by the name Armageddon. This place called Armageddon, therefore, must be symbolic. A careful study of verses 14 through 16 will show the meaning of this term clearly. Verse 14 mentions the battle of the great day of God Almighty. Verse 15 next refers to the righteous. In verse 15 Christ personally gives His people a gentle warning to be on their guard when Satan masquerades as Christ. Verse 16, then, which mentions Armageddon, refers not to the battle of verse 14 but to Christ and the righteous of verse 15. The meaning of verse 16 becomes clear when one realizes who the personal pronouns refer to in this verse. Let us read verse 16 and indicate the proper meaning of these pronouns: “And he (Christ, who spoke in the previous verse) gathered them (the righteous of the previous verse) together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.”

Armageddon, therefore, are the places all over the world where the righteous are gathered to escape the wrath of the wicked and to wait for the return of the Lord. As the persecution over Sunday observance versus Sabbath keeping increases to fearful intensity, the righteous escape to the hills and to the mountains, where they find refuge among the munitions of rocks, as Isaiah 33:15-17 says. “He that walketh righteously, and speaketh uprightly; he that despiseth the gain of oppressions, that shaketh his hands from holding of bribes, that stoppeth his ears from hearing of blood, and shutteth his eyes from seeing evil; He shall dwell on high: his place of defence shall be the munitions of rocks: bread shall be given him; his waters shall be sure. Thine eyes shall see the king in his beauty: they shall behold the land that is very far off.” The land that is very far off is, of course, heaven.

Armageddon does not refer to a specific place, but to the hills and mountains and other secluded places all over the world where the righteous gather in small companies to escape the wrath of the wicked and to wait for the return of the Lord. This is why, search as they will, scholars cannot find the specific place called Armageddon.

During the seven last plagues the righteous are cared for in a very special way, as Isaiah 33:16 shows. The wicked have blood to drink, but the righteous will have both bread and water. Just as God fed the Israelites of old with manna and supplied them with water as they wandered in the wilderness of Sinai for forty years, so He will supply manna and water for His 144,000 during the time of the plagues.

Christ, with all His holy angels, returns to the earth immediately before the seventh plague to gather the righteous, both living and dead, and takes them off the earth before the destruction of the wicked at the seventh plague. During the seventh plague the wicked are all slain and the entire surface of the earth and all the works in the earth are completely broken up by the world-wide earthquake and the huge hailstones. This was described in detail in Chapter Five, The Grand Finale. Notice verse 19: “And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.” Babylon is divided into three parts. These are the same three parts mentioned in Revelation 16:13 as the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet. These three parts are (1) Spiritualism (devil worship through the occult), (2) Catholicism, and (3) the great Protestant ecumenical alliance.

Ezekiel 33:11 says: “As I live, saith the Lord God, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked; but that the wicked turn from his way and live: turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways; for why will ye die?” Probation could close any day. For those who have died, probation closed at the time of death. None of us knows how long his life will last.

For us to miss eternity in God’s new earth would be tragic. Nothing in this world is worth it. To be ready when the Lord returns is worth any sacrifice we might have to make.

“And he said unto me, These sayings are faithful and true: and the Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel to shew unto his servants the things which must shortly be done. Behold, I come quickly: blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of the prophecy of this book.” (Revelation 22:6,7).

1. Josiah Litch, The Probability of the Second Coming ofChrist About A.D. 1843, Boston, David H. Ela, 1838.

2. Rene Noorbergen, Secrets of the Lost Races, BobbsMerrillCompany, Inc., Indianapolis-New York, 1977.

3. Rene Noorbergen, The Ark File, Pacific Press PublishingAssn., Mountain View, CA, 1974, pp. 83-87.

4. Ellen G. White, Early Writings, Review and HeraldPublishing Assn., Washington, D.C., p. 169.

5. Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy, Pacific PressPublishing Assn., Mountain View, CA, 1950, p. 678.

6. U.S. News and World Report, May 29, 1972, p. 29.