Friday, September 30, 2011

U.S. military chaplains can officiate at gay weddings

Photo (Courtesy)

WASHINGTON Fri Sep 30, 2011 1:34pm EDT

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - U.S. military chaplains will be allowed to officiate at same-sex weddings under new guidelines following repeal of the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy on gays serving openly in the military, the Pentagon said on Friday.

A chaplain may participate in or officiate at any private ceremony on or off a military installation as long as the ceremony is not barred by state and local laws, the Defense Department said in a statement.

Chaplains do not have to officiate at ceremonies that go against their religious tenets, it said.

The repeal of the Defense Department policy that barred homosexuals from serving openly in the military -- known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" -- took effect on September 20. More than 14,000 U.S. service members were thrown out under the rule, which dated from 1993.

The new guidelines said that decisions on the use of military property should be made on a "sexual-orientation neutral" basis, the statement said.

Six states and the District of Columbia allow same-sex marriage. Thirty-nine states specifically ban it.

(Reporting by Ian Simpson; Editing by Greg McCune)


Ophelia & Philippe

Stocks slide as US data fails to lift sentiment

Readings on manufacturing and consumer sentiment come in better than expected. US personal incomes slipped in August, while spending rose. World markets decline on lackluster data from China and Germany.

By TheStreet Staff on Fri, Sep 30, 2011 7:33 AM

Image: Wall Street sign (© Corbis/SuperStock)By Chao Deng, TheStreet

Updated at 10:47 a.m. ET

Stocks were trading more than 1% lower after better than expected economic numbers from the U.S. did little to ease intense worries about global economic growth.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average ($INDU) was down 101.11 points, or 0.9%, at 11,052. The S&P 500 ($INX) was down 15.3 points, or 1.3%, at 1,145, and the Nasdaq ($COMPX) was down 33.1 points, or 1.3%, at 2,447.

The Dow bounced from its early low after the Chicago Purchasing Managers Index for August rose to 60.4 in September, topping expectations for a third straight decline to 54 and well ahead of August's reading of 56.5. The report was a welcome surprise given that August saw the lowest level since November 2009.

Also setting the tone this morning was a slightly better read on consumer sentiment. The University of Michigan reported that consumer sentiment rose to 59.4 in September, following a prior reading of 57.8.

A raft of negative data from abroad weighed on investors. A gauge of manufacturing in China declined for a third month in September, according to a report from HSBC Holdings and Markit Economics. Retail sales in Germany, Europe's largest economy, came in below expectations, dropping 2.9% in July. The reading marked the biggest drop in more than four years and underscored a possible slowdown in the global economy.

Eurozone inflation jumped 3% in September, exceeding the European Central Bank's target of below 2%, as well as economists' expectations for 2.5%. The latest reading on inflation cooled speculation that the ECB may take monetary easing measures in addition to lowering interest rates.

Before the open, personal income slipped 0.1% and spending increased 0.2% in August, according to the Commerce Department. Economists were looking for slight gains to income and spending of 0.1% and 0.2%. In July, spending rose a revised 0.7%, while income decreased a revised 0.2%.

In Europe, stocks were headed to close out the worst quarter since 2008. London's FTSE was falling 2.2%, while Germany's DAX was shedding 2.6%. Asian markets closed lower, with Japan's Nikkei down 0.01% and Hong Kong's Hang Seng dropping 2.32%.
Investors and funds may shift into better-performing assets Friday to shore up their portfolios as the quarter ends. The Dow is down almost 3.5% in September. The S&P 500, which is down 4% this month, may continue to fall in October, said Mark Arbeter, the chief technical strategist at S&P Capital IQ.

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On the upside, Europe is getting closer to passing a proposal to expand the eurozone bailout fund. The most recent countries to approve the plan were Germany and Estonia on Thursday. However, the possibility of allowing the fund to borrow and buy bonds to inject capital into the European financial system is still in debate.

"The drama in Europe continues to play out like a dreary soap opera with daily twists and turns," according to investment firm D.A. Davidson & Co. "Traders have been whipsawed by highly volatile stock market price action as unexpected rumors or reports on the European situation continue to hit the tape."

Chinese companies with U.S. listings are expected to face another volatile session after Reuters reported Thursday that the U.S. Justice Department and Securities and Exchange Commission are digging deeper into the companies' accounting practices.

Americans' personal income declined 0.1% in August, while spending rose 0.2%, according to a report from the Bureau of Ecomomic Analysis. Economists had expected that incomes would rise 0.2%. In July, spending rose 0.8% and incomes rose 0.3%.

In corporate news, chip-maker Micron Technology (MU) posted a surprise quarterly loss on flat sales and declining margins. The company said it lost $135 million, or 14 cents a share, for the fourth quarter on revenue of $2.14 billion, down from a year-ago profit of $342 million, or 32 cents a share, on revenue of $2.49 billion. Micron also warned investors about the coming jury decision in its antitrust case with Rambus (RMBS), saying it can't reasonably estimate the range of possible losses from the suit. Shares were plunging 11.1% to $5.22 Friday.

Industrial and commercial products company Ingersoll-Rand (IR) has lowered its third-quarter earnings projections to 77 to 80 cents a share from 85 to 95 cents. Shares were falling 16.3% to $26.74.

The benchmark 10-year Treasury was gaining 18/32, diluting the yield to 1.94%. The euro was dropping, while the dollar was strengthening against a basket of currencies, with the dollar index rising 0.774%.

Gold for December delivery was climbing $6.10 to $1,623.40.

The November crude oil contract was slipping by $1.29 to $80.99 a barrel.


Two Constitutions in the United States.

1st was suspended in favor of a Vatican corporation in 1871.

Tuesday, September 20th, 2011

Pope meeting with the board of directors of The Vatican Bank

Since 1871 the United States president and the United States Congress has been playing politics under a different set of rules and policies. The American people do not know that there are two Constitutions in the United States. The first penned by the leaders of the newly independent states of the United States in 1776. On July 4, 1776, the people claimed their independence from Britain and Democracy was born. And for 95 years the United States people were free and independent. That freedom ended in 1871 when the original “Constitution for the united states for America” was changed to the “THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA”.

The Congress realized that the country was in dire financial straits, so they made a financial deal with the devil – international bankers — (in those days, the Rothschilds of London ) thereby incurring a DEBT to said bankers. The conniving international bankers were not about to lend the floundering nation any money without some serious stipulations. So, they devised a way of taking back control of the United States and thus, the Act of 1871 was passed. With no constitutional authority to do so, Congress created a separate form of government for the District of Columbia.

With the passage of “the Act of 1871” a city state (a state within a state) called the District of Columbia located on 10 sq miles of land in the heart of Washington was formed with its own flag and its own independent constitution – the United States’ secret second constitution.

The flag of Washington’s District of Columbia has 3 red stars, each symbolizing a city state within the three city empire. The three city empire consists of Washington D.C., London, and Vatican City. London is the corporate center of the three city states and controls the world economically. Washington’s District of Columbia city state is in charge of the military, and the Vatican controls it all under the guise of spiritual guidance. Although geographically separate, the city states of London, the Vatican and the District of Columbia are one interlocking empire called “Empire of the City”

The constitution for the District of Columbia operates under tyrannical Vatican law known as “Lex Fori” (local law). When congress passed the act of 1871 it created a separate corporation known as THE UNITED STATES and corporate government for the District of Columbia. This treasonous act has unlawfully allowed the District of Columbia to operate as a corporation outside the original constitution of the United States and in total disregard of the best interests of the American citizens.

POTUS Obama at the Vatican Corporate headquarters

POTUS is the Chief Executive (president) of the Corporation of the United States operating as any other CEO of the corporation — governs w/a Board of Directors (cabinet officials) and managers (Senators/Congress) Obama as others before him is POTUS — operating as “vassal king” taking orders once again from “The City of London” through the RIIA (Royal Institute of Intl Affairs). The Illuminati (founded by the The Society of Jesus or Jesuits, the largest Roman Catholic Religious Military Order headed by the Black Pope) created the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) in 1919. The American equivalent to the RIIA is the Council of Foreign Relations (CFR). The RIIA and CFR set up Round Table Groups (based on the King Arthur myths).

What did the Act of 1871 achieve? The ACT of 1871 put the United States back under British rule (which is under Vatican rule). The United States people lost their independence in 1871.

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA is the constitution of the incorporated UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. It operates in an economic capacity and has been used to fool the People into thinking it governs the Republic. It does not! Capitalization is NOT insignificant when one is referring to a legal document. This seemingly “minor” alteration has had a major impact on every subsequent generation of Americans. What Congress did by passing the Act of 1871 was create an entirely new document, a constitution for the government of the District of Columbia, an INCORPORATED government.

Instead of having absolute and unalienable rights guaranteed under the organic Constitution, we the people now have “relative” rights or privileges. One example is the Sovereign’s right to travel, which has now been transformed (under corporate government policy) into a “privilege” that requires citizens to be licensed – driver’s licenses and Passports. By passing the Act of 1871, Congress committed TREASON against the People who were Sovereign under the grants and decrees of the Declaration of Independence and the organic Constitution. The Act of 1871 became the FOUNDATION of all the treason since committed by government officials.

As of 1871 the United States isn’t a Country; It’s a Corporation! In preparation for stealing America, the puppets of Britain’s banking cabal had already created a second government, a Shadow Government designed to manage what “the people” believed was a democracy, but what really was an incorporated UNITED STATES. Together this chimera, this two-headed monster, disallowed “the people” all rights of sui juris. [you, in your sovereignty]

The U.S.A. is a Crown Colony. The U.S. has always been and remains a British Crown colony. King James I, is not just famous for translating the Bible into “The King James Version”, but for signing the “First Charter of Virginia” in 1606 — which granted America’s British forefathers license to settle and colonize America. The charter guaranteed future Kings/Queens of England would have sovereign authority over all citizens and colonized land in America.

After America declared independence from Great Britain, the Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783 was signed. That treaty identifies the King of England as prince of U.S. “Prince George the Third, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, arch- treasurer and prince elector of the Holy Roman Empire etc., andof the United States of America“– completely contradicting premise that America won The War of Independence.

Article 5 of that treaty gave all British estates, rights and properties back to Britain.

It is agreed that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the legislatures of the respective states to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects; and also of the estates, rights, and properties of persons resident in districts in the possession on his Majesty’s arms and who have not borne arms against the said United States. And that persons of any other decription shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States and therein to remain twelve months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights, and properties as may have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states a reconsideration and revision of all acts or laws regarding the premises, so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consistent not only with justice and equity but with that spirit of conciliation which on the return of the blessings of peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states that the estates, rights, and properties, of such last mentioned persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons who may be now in possession the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights, or properties since the confiscation.

And it is agreed that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.

It is becoming increasingly apparent to American citizens that government is no longer being conducted in accordance with the U.S. Constitution, or, within states, according to state constitutions. While people have recognized for more than 150 years that the rich and powerful often corrupt individual officials, or exert undue influence to get legislation passed that favors their interests, most Americans still cling to the naive belief that such corruption is exceptional, and that most of the institutions of society, the courts, the press, and law enforcement agencies, still largely comply with the Constitution and the law in important matters. They expect that these corrupting forces are disunited and in competition with one another, so that they tend to balance one another.

Mounting evidence makes it clear that the situation is far worse than most people think, that during the last several decades the U.S. Constitution has been effectively overthrown, and that it is now observed only as a façade to deceive and placate the masses. What has replaced it is what many call the Shadow Government – created with the illegal passing of the Act of 1871. It still, for the most part, operates in secret, because its control is not secure. The exposure of this regime and its operations must now become a primary duty of citizens who still believe in the Rule of Law and in the freedoms which this country is supposed to represent.

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Thursday, September 29, 2011

Where's Wall Street?

Viral witch hunt begins for cops accused of beating Wall Street protesters

Daily Mail - Stefan Jeremiah - ‎3 minutes ago‎
An on-line witch hunt has begun to identify police officers after dozens of videos showing the NYPD acting aggressively during last week's Wall Street protests appeared on Youtube. The videos show officers ...

From Wall Street to Tahrir Square, a New Distrust of Leaders' Promises

TIME (blog) - Tony Karon - ‎24 minutes ago‎
Protesters from the Occupy Wall Street campaign march in front of the New York Stock Exchange in New York September 28, 2011. (Photo: Brendan McDermid / Reuters) Outrage at a status quo that serves powerful elites at the expense of the majority has, ...

Wall Street protesters target NY cops next - ‎1 hour ago‎
Demonstrators with "Occupy Wall Street" sit Thursday in Zuccotti Park, an encampment in the financial district of New York City. The demonstrators are protesting bank bailouts, foreclosures and high unemployment. NEW YORK — A standoff near Wall Street ...

'Occupy Wall Street' sit-in continues on Day 13 in New York City (blog) - ‎1 hour ago‎
Demonstrators with "Occupy Wall Street" sleep in Zuccotti Park on September 29, 2011 in New York. where demonstrators against the economic system have been gathering in New York City. The encampment in the financial district of New York City is now on ...

Photos: Demonstrators 'Occupy Wall Street'

National Post (blog) - ‎2 hours ago‎
Participants in the "Occupy Wall Street" demonstrate around Wall Street attempting to disrupt pedestrian flow for financial workers to get to work, in New York, September 19, 2011. Hundreds of activists affiliated with the “Occupy Wall Street” ...

Catholics Fight Health Rules

SEPTEMBER 29, 2011

Social-Service Agencies Say They Need Broader Exemption From Requirements on Contraceptives


Catholic organizations have ramped up opposition to new federal health-care requirements to cover contraceptive services, saying the rules may prompt them to drop insurance or shut down.

Beginning next August, employers have to provide coverage for contraception and other preventive services for women such as screening for gestational diabetes and domestic-violence counseling under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, part of the federal health-care law passed in 2010.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services exempted religious organizations that employ and serve people of the same faith from having to provide contraception services, but this exception has been criticized as too narrow by church leaders, as well as some members of Congress.

"Jesus himself, or the Good Samaritan of his famous parable, would not qualify as 'religious enough' for the exemption, since they insisted on helping people who did not share their view of God," said Cardinal Daniel DiNardo of Galveston-Houston.

Catholic social-service agencies, universities, hospitals and nursing homes wouldn't be exempt because they frequently employ and serve non-Catholics. "The point is we're being asked to pay for services that go against our beliefs," said Pittsburgh Bishop David A. Zubik in an interview. "This looks like the government telling us what we can and can't believe and what we can and can't do."

Without a broader exemption, he said, many Catholic social-service agencies would drop health-insurance coverage and risk losing employees. And instead of restricting their employment and services to Catholics to avoid the requirement, some might close, he said.

"If you're required to pay for services that are contrary to our teaching, the only option is to not provide benefits," said Susan Rauscher, executive director of Catholic Charities in Pittsburgh, which serves about 81,000 in southwestern Pennsylvania of all faiths.

Ms. Rauscher said between 60% and 70% of the nonprofit's 147 employees are covered by the agency health-care plan. The plan only pays for contraception when prescribed for a medical condition, she said.

If the agency decides to drop health-care coverage, starting in 2014 it would have to pay an annual penalty of $2,000 per employee beyond the first 30 employees, or $234,000. "Would I prefer to use that on my clients who need assistance? Absolutely," she said. A bigger concern is retention: "How do we keep and retain employees?"

HHS, which wrote the exemption's language and has the discretion to revise it, has agreed to accept comments until Friday to help the department "strike the right balance between expanding prevention coverage and respecting religious beliefs," said spokesman Richard Sorian.

In the past two weeks, churches across the country have been urging local parishioners to contact HHS and ask for a broadening of the exemption.

Several groups, including the American Civil Liberties Union, support the religious exemption in its current form. "We think it's essential for women that contraception be covered among other preventive services," said Sarah Lipton-Lubet, policy counsel at the ACLU.

Sister Carol Keehan, chief executive of the Catholic Health Association of the United States, which represents 2,000 Catholic hospitals, nursing homes and other organizations, suggested in a letter to HHS that the exemption be broadened to any organization that "shares common religious bonds and convictions with a church." That language is modeled on a section of the Internal Revenue Code related to pension, health and welfare plans offered by religious entities.

The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops said the mandate to provide contraception violates the First Amendment separation of church and state and could end up in court if exemptions aren't broadened, said Richard Doerflinger, director of pro-life activities at the conference.

In Pennsylvania, Republican Sen. Pat Toomey said the exemption should be redrafted "to ensure the protection of religious liberty, freedom of conscience, and important public services that Catholic institutions provide."

The state's other senator, Bob Casey, a Catholic Democrat and abortion foe who supports greater access to contraceptives because they reduce the number of abortions, is in favor of a broader exemption, according to his spokeswoman April Mellody. The senator doesn't believe religious-affiliated institutions should "be forced to buy health insurance policies" contrary to their religious beliefs.


Concordat between Pope Pius IX and the Republic of Ecuador (1862)

Concordat between Pope Pius IX and the Republic of Ecuador
26 September 1862

In the Name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.

His Holiness, the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IX, and the President of the Republic of Ecuador have nominated as their respetive plenipotentiaries:

― For His Holiness: His Eminence, Monsignor Giacomo Anonelli, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Deacon of S. Agatha in Suburra, his Secretary of State and External Relations;

― For the President of the Republic: His Excellency, Monsignor Ignaçio Ordoñez, Archdeacon of the Cathedral Church of Cuenca in the same Republic, etc., etc., and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Holy See.

These persons, having exchanged their respective full powers, have agreed on the following Articles:

This concordat refers often to the Council of Trent (1545-1563) whose “main object was the definitive determination of the doctrines of the Church in answer to the heresies of the Protestants.”* The laws or “canons” enacted by Church Councils, together with papal pronouncements, were organised into the first Code of Canon Law in 1917. Subsequent concordats often refer to this “Canon Law”, but the Ecuadorian concordat, predating this, still cites specific enactments like those from the Council of Trent.

Article 1
The Catholic Apostolic Roman religion shall continue to be the sole religion of the Republic of Ecuador, and shall always be preserved there together with all the rights and privileges which it ought to enjoy according to the law of God and canonical enactments. In consequence, no other dissident form of worship or any society condemned by the Church shall at any time be allowed within the Republic of Ecuador.

Article 2
In every diocese which exists at present or which shall be created in the future, there should be a diocesan seminary, the supervision, curriculum and administration of which shall belong freely and exclusively to the diocesan Ordinary [bishop] according to the rules prescribed by the Council of Trent and other canonical laws. The Rectors, Professors and others taking part in teaching and administering such establishments shall be freely appointed and removed by the Ordinaries.
Article 3
The education of young people in Universities, Colleges, Faculties, public and private schools shall be in full conformity with the Catholic religion. The Bishops shall enjoy in the exclusive right of indicating books or texts for the teaching of religious knowledge, and also for religious and moral instruction. Furthermore, the Bishops and Ordinaries shall exercise with full freedom the right which belongs to them of prohibiting books contrary to religion and good morals; the Government also will keep close watch and will take the necessary measures to prevent the entrance into and diffusion of such books in the Republic.

Article 4
The Bishops shall attend to the duty of their pastoral ministry which is to prevent the teaching of any theory contrary to the Catholic religion and moral virtue. For this purpose, no one shall be permitted to teach in any educational establishment, whether public or private, Theology, Catechism, or Religious Doctrine without having first obtained authorisation from the diocesan Ordinary, who can revoke it when it shall seem opportune to him. For the examination of teachers in primary schools, the diocesan Ordinary shall always appoint a deputy for the purpose of enquiring into the religious knowledge and moral conduct of the candidates for examination, who shall not be able to enter upon the performance of their duties without the approval of the same diocesan Ordinary.

Article 5
Since the primacy of honour and of jurisdiction in the Universal Church belongs by Divine Law to the Roman Pontiff, the bishops, clergy and laity shall have free communication with the Holy See. Therefore, no secular authority shall have the right to place obstacles to the full and free exercise of the aforesaid communication by forcing the bishops, clergy and laity to act through the agency of the Government in order to approach the Roman See if occasion arises, or by subjecting Bulls, Briefs or Rescripts of the Apostolic See to the Government’s exequatur.

Article 6
The ecclesiastical Ordinaries of the Republic shall have full freedom be free to govern their dioceses with full liberty, to assemble and hold Provincial and Diocesan Councils, and to exercise the rights which belong to them by virtue of their sacred ministry and of the canonical arrangements valid and approved by the Holy See, without anyone being allowed to hinder them in carrying out their decisions. Furthermore, the Government of Ecuador will provide the Bishops with its utmost assistance and support, whenever it shall be required, principally when it shall be necessary to oppose the wickedness of those men who endeavour to pervert the minds of the faithful and to corrupt their morals.

Article 7
Appeals from sentences of the Ordinaries to the secular authority (commonly called recursos de fuerza) shall be abolished. As regards the execution of sentences pronounced by the usual ecclesiastical tribunals, it shall be possible to make appeal only to the superior ecclesiastical tribunals or to the Holy See according to the procedure laid down in the Brief Exposcit (May 15, 1572) of the Supreme Pontiff, Gregory XIII, and in conformity with the canonical requirements, particularly those laid down concerning matrimonial cases by Benedict XIV in the Constitution Dei miseratione or, alternatively, it shall be possible to bring a case of nullity or of complaint before the aforesaid superior instances. The ecclesiastical judicial authorities shall pronounce their judgements without previously submitting them to the scrutiny of the lay assessors whom, however, they may consult, when they believe it necessary. Ecclesiastical Advocates shall be able to exercise the office of assessor in this class of judicial cases.

Article 8
All ecclesiastical cases, especially those concerning the Faith, the Sacraments (including matrimonial cases), morals, sacred functions, sacred rights and duties, whether by reason of person or of matter, except more important cases reserved to the Supreme Pontiff according to the decision of the Holy Council of Trent (Sess. 24, Cap. V, de Reformatione) shall be brought before the ecclesiastical tribunals. The same rule shall be observed in civil cases concerning ecclesiastics and in others regarding crimes included in the Penal Code of the Republic. In all judicial cases which may be within ecclesiastical competence, the civil authority shall furnish all help and assistance to enable the sentences and punishments pronounced by the ecclesiastical judges to be observed and put into effect.

Article 9
The Holy See permits ecclesiastical persons and property to be subjected to public taxation in the same way as the persons and property of the other citizens of Ecuador are subject to it, provided, however, that the civil authority consults the Church to obtain its consent whenever coercion shall be necessary. Seminaries, property and objects directly destined for Divine worship, and charitable institutions shall be exempted from such taxes.

Article 10
Out of respect for the majesty of God, who is the King of kings and Lord of lords, the immunity of religious places shall be respected so far as is compatible with public security and the requirements of justice. When necessary, the Holy See consents that the ecclesiastical authority, parish priests and superiors of the religious houses may, at the request of the civil authority, give permission for refugees to be taken out.

Article 11
As the proceeds of the tithes are destined for the upkeep of Divine worship and of its ministers, the Government of Ecuador binds itself to preserve this Catholic institution in the Republic and His Holiness consents that the Government should continue to receive a third part of the proceeds of tithes. The two authorities (civil and ecclesiastical) shall come to an agreement about the collection and administration of tithes.

Article 12
By virtue of the right of patronage, which the Supreme Pontiff concedes to the President of Ecuador, the latter shall be able to propose suitable priests for the archbishoprics and bishoprics according to sacred canonical procedure. To this end, when a vacancy in an episcopal See falls vacant, the archbishop shall ask for the votes and opinions of the other bishops about filling the vacancy; if the archepiscopal See falls vacant, the senior bishop in that region shall collect the votes and shall present a list of three candidates at least to the President, who may choose one of them and present him to the Supreme Pontiff for the conferring of canonical institution according to the form and procedure prescribed by the sacred Canons. In a case where presentation by the bishops is not made within six months, for whatever reason, the president of Ecuador shall have the authority to act by himself and if he has taken no action within three months, the election shall be reserved to the Holy See, as the President himself has requested. To this effect, the Government or, failing that, the ecclesiastical authority shall report to the Holy See as soon as those periods have expired. The persons presented, however, shall not be able to engage in any way with the discipline and administration of the churches without previously receiving Bulls of canonical institution. In the creation of new bishoprics, the President of the Republic shall, on the first occasion, present the new bishops directly to the Holy See.

Article 13
Similarly, His Holiness concedes to the President of the Republic the right of naming suitable ecclesiastics to benefices of a Cathedral Chapter or to offices, canonries or functions therein with the exception, however, of the highest dignity which shall be at free disposal of the Holy See, and with the exception also of prebends which are not part of the concursus, namely those falling vacant in the months of March, June, September and December; these shall be at the free disposal of the bishops. The offices of Doctor, Penitentiary, Professor and the rest of the concursus shall similarly be provided for by the bishops only, after they have made examinations according to canonical requirements. Finally, if in any Chapter does not contain the number of Chapter members fixed in the Bulls of creation of the respective dioceses, the bishop shall be entitled, immediately or when funds shall be sufficient, to create the benefices which are lacking, and provision for them shall be made in conformity with the procedure set forth in the present Article.

Article 14
With respect to the provision for parochial benefices the Ordinaries, in compliance with the rules laid down by the Council of Trent, shall present to the Government a list of three suitable ecclesiastics, on one of whom the parish may be conferred; the President, whether directly or by the agency of his delegates in the provinces, shall choose one of these three. In a case where the Government for special reasons should demand a further three candidates to be proposed, the Ordinary shall have the authority to provide such a list, on condition that it shall in no way be possible to reject this second list. If it becomes necessary to make territorial divisions of parishes, this can be done by the bishops in consultation with the local civil authority.

Article 15
During the vacancy of an episcopal church, its Chapter shall freely elect a Vicar Capitular, within the time and according to the form prescribed by the Council of Trent, without it being possible for anyone to reverse this election, once it has been made, or to proceed to another one; any custom, however ancient it may be, and of whatever kind it may be, which would be contrary in this respect to the enactments of the sacred Canons is hereby completely over-ruled and utterly abolished.

Article 16
The Holy See, in exercise of its particular prerogative, shall create new dioceses and shall make new delimitations in those at present existing; and taking into account the present extent of the dioceses among which the Republic is at present divided, the Holy See will, immediately on ratification of the present Concordat, confer on its own special delegate the necessary powers to proceed in consultation with the Government and the respective bishops to the territorial demarcation of the dioceses which can be conveniently created and to fix the endowments and salaries of churches, bishops, chapters and seminaries.

Article 17
The executive decree of May 28, 1836, on the abolition of taxes imposed in favour of the Church, shall be itself abolished; and the Holy See in view of the usefulness which will result from the present Concordat, and desiring to provide for public tranquillity and to remedy the evils caused in the country by the transfer of these taxes to the National Treasury, and acceding to the repeated requests of the President, decrees and declares that those persons who, during the period which has elapsed from the year 1836 until the present, shall have made or promoted such trasfers, as also owners of the funds which have been acquired in this way and those who have in any way succeeded to the possession of the same, shall not receive, at any time or in any manner, the slightest molestation on the part of His Holiness or of his successors as Roman Pontiffs.

Article 18
With regard to the obligations contracted by the Government with its creditors because of the taxes transferred, the Holy See allows the Government to be free of all responsibility through payment of a tenth part (or less if the ecclesiastical Ordinary agrees) of both the capital transferred to the public treasury and also of the interest gained. To secure the payment of this amount, the Government shall assign to it a fourth part of the third which it shall receive from tithes; this shall be placed in the hands of the Ordinaries in order that it may be divided by them in proportional parts among their bona fidecreditors, care being taken that the principal is capitalised in a secure and productive manner. In the future it will not be permissible for any possessor of taxable goods to transfer to the public Treasury the required capital, and those who shall try to free their assets from the taxes imposed on them, shall not be allowed to do so in any way without the previous consent of the respective Ordinary and by handing the required capital to the Ordinary by whose permission it may be submitted in case of necessity to a wise and equitable reduction; it being understood however, that in every case due regard must be paid to the interests of the Church.

Article 19
The Church shall enjoy the right of acquiring freely and by any legitimate title both the properties which it now possesses and those which it may possess in the future, which shall be guaranteed to it by the law. The administration of ecclesiastical goods shall be entrusted to persons designated by the sacred Canons, who alone shall examine the accounts and economic regulations. Goods of ecclesiastical foundations, of whatever type they may be, which belong to hospitals and other charitable institutions and which are at present not administered by ecclesiastical authority, shall be restored to it, so that without delay it can assign those goods to their rightful purpose. With regard to both old and new ecclesiastical foundations, no suppression or union shall be possible without the intervention of the authority of the Holy See, except for the powers belonging to the bishops according to the Council of Trent.

Article 20
In addition to the religious Orders and Congregations at present in existence in the Republic of Ecuador, the diocesan Ordinaries shall be able, freely and without any exception, to admit and establish in their respective dioceses new Orders or Institutes approved by the Church in conformity with the needs of their people; to this end the Government will lend its support.

Article 21
After the Divine Office in all churches of the Republic of Ecuador, the following prayer shall be said: “O Lord, save the Republic. O Lord, save its President.”

Article 22
The Government of the Republic of Ecuador binds itself to provide all possible means for the propagation of the Faith by the conversion of pagans living in its territory; and to supply every assistance and help to the establishment and progress of the holy missions, which have been sent by the authority of the sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith for this praiseworthy purpose.

Article 23
Other matters pertaining to ecclesiastical property or persons, of which no mention has been made in the Articles of the present Concordat, shall be regulated and administered according to the Canonical discipline existent in the Church and approved by the Holy See.

Article 24
By virtue of this Concordat all laws and decrees published hitherto in whatever manner and form in Ecuador are revoked in the respects in which they are contrary (to the Concordat); and the aforesaid Concordat is always to be considered as a perpetual law of the State. Therefore, each of the Contracting Parties binds itself, on behalf of their respective heads and their successors, to loyal observance of all and sundry of the component Articles. If in the future, any difficulty should arise, the Holy Father and the President of Ecuador shall confer with each other to obtain an amicable settlement.

Article 25
The ratifications of the present Concordat shall be exchanged within a period of one year, or sooner if possible.

In witness whereof the above-mentioned Plenipotentiaries have signed and sealed the present agreement with their respective seals.

Given at Rome on the 26th day of September, 1862.

Giacomo Cardinal Antonelli. Ignaçio Ordoñez.